Books and articles across borders and languages (1990-2015) [contents]

LogoMarie

By Marie Lebert, April 2016.

Books and articles across borders and languages (1990-2015) [PDF & EPUB]

[Overview]
After Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1990, books and articles could be accessed more easily. New media, new bookstores and new libraries helped cross national borders. Authors and journalists started working together at a distance. Internet users who didn’t have English as a mother tongue reached 5 percent in summer 1994, 20 percent in summer 1998, 50 percent in summer 2000, and 75 percent in summer 2015. Some of them could read English, and a number of them couldn’t read English at all. The web saw the rise of “linguistic democracy” and the development of “language nations”, both large and small. Many dedicated people helped promoting their own language and culture, or the language and culture of others, while using English as a lingua franca. These people were linguists, librarians, programmers, professors, researchers, marketing consultants, and so on. In a short time they made the web truly multilingual, with bilingual or trilingual web sites, language-related resources, reference dictionaries, multilingual encyclopedias and translation software. This book is based on many interviews conducted for fifteen years in Europe, in America, in Africa and in Asia. Also available in French and Spanish.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

# INTRODUCTION

# THE WEB, FROM ENGLISH TO MULTILINGUAL
= From ASCII to Unicode
= The “Web Language Hit Parade” (Babel)
= “The Multilingual Web Guide” (O’Reilly)
= The example of French as a non-English language
= Europe and its many languages
= E-commerce, an incentive for plurilingualism
= The need for bilingual or trilingual information
= Collaboration across borders

# ELECTRONIC TEXTS ACROSS BORDERS
= E-zines and other e-texts
= The Online Books Page
= The first digital libraries in Europe
= Project Gutenberg, a source of inspiration
= More restrictive copyright laws

# WRITTEN MEDIA ACROSS BORDERS
= Major printed newspapers went online
= The internet and other media
= Electronic titles without a print version
= Multimedia convergence
= Unemployment, retraining and telework

# BOOKSTORES ACROSS BORDERS
= The Internet BookShop paved the way
= Amazon in France
= And the small bookstores?
= eBookStores

# AUTHORS ACROSS BORDERS
= An author of educational books
= A novelist and essayist
= A hypermedia writer
= Experiments by best-selling authors

# LIBRARIES ACROSS BORDERS
= Libraries launched websites
= Libraries started digital libraries
= Libraries digitized their treasures
= Librarians in cyberspace
= Gabriel, the portal of European national libraries
= Online library catalogs
= Online union catalogs

# THE WEB, A WORLD ENCYCLOPEDIA
= Improvements in information technology
= From print knowledge to digital knowledge
= The first online encyclopedias
= Free collaborative online encyclopedias
= Copyright, copyleft and Creative Commons

# LANGUAGE-RELATED RESOURCES
= Travlang: Travel + Languages
= The Internet Dictionary Project
= Netglos, a glossary of internet terminology
= The linguistic tools of Logos
= yourDictionary.com
= The Ethnologue, a catalog of living languages

# TOOLS FOR TRANSLATIONS
= Translators dig the internet
= Terminology databases
= WordReference.com
= From Babel Fish to Google Translate
= Machine translation
= A market for translation software

# MINORITY LANGUAGES ON THE WEB
= Windows on Haiti, to promote Haitian Creole
= The college Sabhal Mòr Ostaig, in Scotland
= Scottish Gaelic on the web
= Indigenous Tweets and Indigenous Blogs
= A UNESCO atlas for endangered languages

# CONCLUSION
= The language barrier is still there
= A few more trends to study

# A TIMELINE


Copyright © 2015-16 Marie Lebert

Written by marielebert

2015/11/18 at 21:49

Posted in Uncategorized