By Marie Lebert, version of 24 April 2016.
The timeline is included in this book, with more information on each step.
1963: ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the first encoding system.
1967: OCLC is created as a non-profit organization dedicated to furthering access to the world’s information.
1971: OCLC starts its Online Union Catalog (later renamed WorldCat) for the university libraries in the State of Ohio.
1971-07: After typing eText #1, Michael Hart sends a message to the 100 users of the pre-internet of the time. Six users retrieve the file. Project Gutenberg is born.
1974: Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn invent the communication protocols at the heart of the internet.
1976: The U.S. Copyright Act of 1976 extends the copyright to 50 years after the author’s death.
1977: The International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) creates UNIMARC as a common bibliographic format for library catalogs.
1980: The Research Libraries Group (RLG) creates its own union catalog, named RLIN (Research Libraries Information Network).
1983: After being a network linking U.S. governmental agencies, universities and research centers, the internet starts its progression worldwide.
1984: Psion launches the Psion Organiser, its pocket computer, before launching its PDA twelve years later.
1984: Written by Richard Stallman, the first copyleft license is a novel use of copyright to ensure that a software can be freely used and improved.
1986: Franklin launches the first handheld electronic dictionary, 14 years before the eBookMan, its multimedia PDA.
1990: Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web and gives his invention to the world.
1991-01: The Unicode is a universal encoding system for the processing, storage and interchange of text data in any language.
1992: Projekt Runeberg is the first Swedish digital library of public domain books.
1992: The Internet Society (ISOC) is founded by Vinton Cerf to promote the development of the internet (created in 1974).
1992: The Etext Archives are founded by Paul Southworth as a home for electronic texts of any kind.
1993: John Mark Ockerbloom creates The Online Books Page to facilitate access to books that are available for free on the internet.
1993-02: The Directive 93/98/EEC of the European Commission requests the harmonization of national copyright laws in the European Union.
1993-04: ABU (Association des Bibliophiles Universels – Association of Universal Bibliophiles) creates the first French digital library of public domain books.
1993-06: Adobe launches PDF (Portable Document Format) as well as Acrobat Reader (to view PDFs) and Adobe Acrobat (to create PDFs).
1993-07: John Labovitz creates The E-Zine-List as a list of electronic zines around the world.
1993-11: Mosaic is the first web browser for the general public.
1994: Netscape Navigator is the second web browser for the general public.
1994: Projekt Gutenberg-DE is the first German digital library of public domain books.
1994: Michel Martin creates Travlang as a list of free online translation dictionaries for travelers.
1994: Pierre Perroud creates Athena, a plurilingual digital library hosted on the website of the University of Geneva, Switzerland.
1994-02: The Helsinki Public Library in Finland is the first library to launch a website.
1994-03: Jeff Bezos does a market study which leads him to conclude that books are the best products to sell on the internet. Amazon starts the following year.
1994-05: Tyler Chambers creates The Human-Languages Page (H-LP) as a catalog of language-related internet resources.
1994-10: The World Wide Consortium (W3C) is founded to develop protocols for the web (invented in 1990).
1995: Several major print newspapers and magazines create their websites.
1995: The WorldWide Language Institute (WWLI) launches NetGlos, a collaborative project to create a multilingual glossary of internet terminology.
1995: Microsoft launches its own web browser, named Internet Explorer.
1995: Researchers at PARC (Palo Alto Research Center, Xerox) develop an electronic ink technology called Gyricon.
1995: Robert Beard creates A Web of Online Dictionaries as a directory of freely available online dictionaries.
1995: Tyler Chambers creates The Internet Dictionary Project (IDP) as a collaborative project to create free online bilingual dictionaries.
1995-03: The Internet Public Library (IPL) is the first public digital library to serve the internet community by cataloging websites and web pages (instead of printed documents).
1995-07: Amazon.com is launched in Seattle as an online bookstore.
1995-09: Several European national libraries create a common website called Gabriel.
1995-11: Pascal Chartier creates Livre-Rare-Book as an online union catalog of rare and used books sold by partner bookstores.
1996: The NAP (National Academy Press) posts full digital versions of its books for free on its website, to boost the sales of the printed versions of the same books.
1996: The MIT Press does the same, with success.
1996: The Ethnologue, a reference catalog of all living languages, launches a free online version of its catalog.
1996: The European Commission promotes UNIMARC (created in 1977) as a common bibliographic format for library catalogs in member countries.
1996-03: The Palm Pilot is the first PDA.
1996-04: The Internet Archive is founded by Brewster Kahle to archive the internet and the web for present and future generations.
1996-04: Robert Ware creates OneLook Dictionaries as a “fast finder” in hundreds of free online dictionaries.
1996-05: The DAISY Consortium is founded to promote DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) as a standard format for audiobooks.
1996-07: Olivier Gainon creates CyLibris as the first French-language online publisher selling its books over the internet.
1996-09: The conference organized by the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) includes a lecture on “Creativity and the Computer Education Industry”.
1996-10: Pierre Schweitzer designs the prototype of @folio, a novel reading device inspired from the fax and from tab file folders.
1996-12: The WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) is adopted by the member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
1997: The web sees the birth of the first blog, followed by many others.
1997: Hachette launches a freely available online dictionary under the name of Dictionnaire Universel Francophone (French-language Universal Dictionary).
1997: The National Library of France (Bibliothèque Nationale de France – BNF) launches its digital library Gallica with 3,000 digitized books from the 19th century.
1997-01: A new version of Gabriel is launched as the trilingual portal of European national libraries.
1997-01: The International Labour Office (ILO) organizes the first Symposium on Multimedia Convergence in Geneva, Switzerland.
1997-01: The Internet Bookshop (United Kingdom) develops a network of affiliated websites selling its books and earning a percentage on the sales.
1997-03: Barnes & Noble starts selling books online through its AOL (America OnLine) website as the exclusive bookseller for AOL subscribers.
1997-04: Amazon develops its own network of affiliated websites.
1997-04: Researchers from the MIT MediaLab create the company E Ink to develop an electronic ink technology .
1997-04: There are one million websites worldwide.
1997-05: Barnes & Noble, the largest U.S. bookstore chain, launches its online bookstore.
1997-05: The British Library launches its OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).
1997-06: oVosite is a hypermedia online writing space created by six authors from the Hypermedia Department of the University of Paris 8.
1997-07: The UNOG (United Nations of Geneva) Library opens its “cyberspace” with 24 computers connected to the internet and available to all.
1997-08: O’Reilly Medial publishes For a Multilingual Web by Yoshi Mikami in Japanese, before translating the book into English, German and French the following year.
1997-09: The Internet Bookshop (United Kingdom) starts selling books published by authors living in the U.S.
1997-10: The Internet Bookshop is the first online bookstore to offer major discounts on book prices.
1997-12: The Italian translation company Logos puts all its professional linguistic resources (dictionaries, glossaries, grammars, conjugators) online for free.
1997-12: The search engine AltaVista launches its free instant online translation service, called Babel Fish or AltaVista Translation.
1997-12: There are 70 million internet users (1.7% of the world population).
1998: ARTFL (American and French Research on the Treasury of the French Language) launches an experimental database for the first volume (1751) of Diderot’s Encyclopédie.
1998: The City Library of Lyon, France, offers digitized illuminations of its rare books on its website.
1998: The Rocket eBook is the first e-reader, launched by NuvoMedia. It can hold ten books.
1998: Bertelsmann (Germany) and Vivendi (France) create BOL.com (BOL: Bertelsmann OnLine) as a major European online bookstore.
1998-02: Barry Beckham writes You Have a Friend, the first novel to be sent by email in short chapters.
1998-05: Editions 00h00 is launched as the first publisher selling ebooks.
1998-06: The Open eBook Initiative is created to work on a standard format called Open eBook (OeB).
1998-07: Barnes & Noble launches a new version of its online bookstore.
1998-09: The Canadian bookseller Chapters partners with the daily The Globe and Mail to open its online bookstore chaptersglobe.com.
1998-10: Amazon creates its first two subsidiaries in Europe (before Asia), in the United Kingdom and in Germany.
1998-10: Jean-Paul, a hypermedia writer, creates the website Cotres.net to experiment new ways of writing, and to create novel works using hyperlinks.
1998-10: The Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA) extends copyright to 70 years after the author’s death. Digital libraries remove a number of books from their collections.
1999: The internet is a character in itself in Sanguine sur Toile (Sanguine on the Web) by Alain Bron, available in print from Editions Le Choucas in 1999, and in PDF from Editions 00h00 in 2000.
1999: The SoftBook Reader is launched by SoftBook Press as the second e-reader (after the Rocket eBook in 1998).
1999: Michael Kellogg creates WordReference.com to offer free online bilingual dictionaries as well as discussion forums for linguists.
1999-08: The Library of Congress launches the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS).
1999-09: The Open eBook (OeB) is published as a standard format for ebooks.
1999-12: Denis Zwirn creates Numilog as the first French-language digital bookstore, specialized in selling ebooks.
1999-12: The Encyclopaedia Britannica creates its online version Britannica.com, available first for free and then for a fee.
1999-12: The Encyclopaedia Universalis (the French version of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) creates its online version, with a paid subscription and some articles available for free.
1999-12: The French WebEncyclo is the free online version of a print encyclopedia published by Atlas.
2000: Plastic Logic is created to develop and market flexible plastic displays.
2000: Editions 00h00 publishes and/or sells 600 ebooks in French.
2000: HyperNietzsche is created as an online collaborative textual database gathering works by Nietzsche.
2000-01: The wiki becomes popular as a collaborative website. Wikipedia is launched the following year as a collaborative encyclopedia.
2000-01: Barnes & Noble.com teams up with Adobe to sell ebooks for the Acrobat Reader.
2000-01: Barnes & Noble.com teams up with Microsoft to sell ebooks for the Microsoft Reader.
2000-01: Gemstar buys NuvoMedia (the company behind the Rocket eBook) and SoftBook Press (the company behind the SoftBook Reader) to launch its own e-reader the following year.
2000-01: The Open eBook Forum (OeBF) is founded to promote the OeB format as a standard format for ebooks.
2000-01: The Million Book Project wants to offer one million free ebooks on the web. It reaches its goal seven years later.
2000-02: Robert Beard cofounds yourDictionary.com, a main web portal for dictionaries and other linguistic resources in all languages without any exception.
2000-03: The Oxford University Press (OUP) publishes an online version of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), with a paid subscription.
2000-03: Stephen King sells the electronic version of his short story Riding the Bullet a few months before starting to self-publish a novel on a dedicated website.
2000-03: Thierry Brethes and Nathalie Ting create Mobipocket, a company specializing in ebooks for PDAs. The Mobipocket Reader is intended for any PDA.
2000-03: There are 300 million internet users (5% of the world population).
2000-04: Microsoft launches its own PDA, the Pocket PC, as well as the Microsoft Reader.
2000-07: 50% of internet users don’t have English as a mother tongue.
2000-07: Simon & Schuster launches SimonSays.com to sell digital versions of its books.
2000-07: Stephen King self-publishes his novel The Plant chapter by chapter on a dedicated website. With the downloads (and payments) decreasing, he stops the experience six months later.
2000-08: Amazon launches its French subsidiary Amazon.fr at a time when books sold online only represent 0.5% of the French book market (5.4% in the U.S.).
2000-08: Amazon teams up with Microsoft to sell ebooks for the Microsoft Reader.
2000-08: Amazon teams up with Adobe to sell ebooks for the Acrobat Reader.
2000-08: Barnes & Noble.com opens its eBookStore.
2000-08: The Microsoft Reader offers a version for computers on top of a version for PDAs.
2000-09: HandicapZéro creates its first website to facilitate access to the web for all French-speaking visually impaired and blind users.
2000-09: The encyclopedia Encarta from Microsoft launches a free online version.
2000-09: The GDT (Grand Dictionnaire Terminologique – Large Terminology Dictionary) from Quebec is a free bilingual (French, English) online dictionary.
2000-09: The U.S. company Gemstar buys the French Editions 00h00 and its ebooks.
2000-10: Charles Franks creates Distributed Proofreaders to share the correction of public domain books between many volunteers, before including them into Project Gutenberg.
2000-10: Franklin launches its own multimedia PDA, the eBookMan.
2000-10: Gemstar launches its own e-reader, the Gemstar eBook, before stopping the production three years later.
2000-10: The Public Library of Science (PLOS) is founded to promote free access to scientific and medical journals. PLOS starts publishing its own free online journals three years later.
2000-10: PUF (Presses Universitaires de France – French University Presses) starts publishing a few digital versions of its books.
2000-11: Amazon has four subsidiaries outside the U.S. They are in the United Kingdom, in Germany, in France and in Japan.
2000-11: Arturo Pérez-Reverte, a Spanish novelist, sells his new novel El Oro del Rey (The Gold of the King) as an ebook during one month, before selling it as a printed book.
2000-11: Frederick Forsyth, an English author of thrillers, publishes a new short story online with the help of Online Originals, before stopping the experiment.
2000-11: The digitized version of the original Bible printed by Gutenberg is available on the British Library’s website.
2000-11: Random House is the first major publisher to offer attractive conditions to its authors, as a way to encourage them to publish their work both as ebooks and printed books.
2000-11: The Nokia 9210 is the first smartphone.
2000-12: The USB flash drive sold by IBM has a 8-Mb storage capacity, more than five times the capacity of a floppy disk.
2000-12: Amazon opens its eBookStore.
2000-12: Researchers from PARC (Xerox) create the company Gyricon Media to develop and market their electronic ink technology.
2001: Lawrence Lessig conceives Creative Commons as a way for copyrighted authors to be able to share their work on the internet, and for creators to be able to copy and remix it. The first licenses are published the following year.
2001: eBooks start getting DRMs (Digital Right Management).
2001-01: Adobe launches the Adobe Content Server to create and manage copyrighted ebooks with DRM.
2001-01: Adobe launches the Adobe eBook Reader for copyrighted ebooks, before merging it with Acrobat Reader to launch Adobe Reader two years later.
2001-01: Amazon lays off 1.300 employees in the U.S. and 270 employees in Europe.
2001-01: Barnes & Noble (as a publisher) creates Barnes & Noble Digital to publish ebooks.
2001-01: Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger create Wikipedia as a main free collaborative online encyclopedia.
2001-01: The Cybook is the first European e-reader, created by Cytale before being developed and marketed by Bookeen two years later.
2001-03: Palm buys the company Peanut Press (software and ebooks) from netLibrary.
2001-03: IBM launches the WebSphere Translation Server, to handle machine translation on a large scale.
2001-03: Users can read ebooks on their Palm Pilot (launched in 1996), on the Palm Reader or the Mobipocket Reader.
2001-04: Amazon teams up with Adobe to sell copyrighted ebooks for the Acrobat eBook Reader (later replaced with the Adobe Reader).
2001-04: Jean-Pierre Balpe, a French professor and author, writes Rien n’est sans dire (Nothing is without saying) as a novel sent chapter after chapter by email during 100 days.
2001-04: There are 17 million PDAs and only 100,000 e-readers worldwide, according to a Seybold Report.
2001-05: The European Union Copyright Directive (EUCD) (Directive 2001/29/EC) extends copyright from 50 to 70 years after the author’s death.
2001-05: The Acrobat Reader offers a version for the Palm Pilot on top of a version for computers.
2001-09: Yahoo creates its eBookStore.
2001-10: Users can read ebooks on the eBookMan (Franklin), on the Mobipocket Reader.
2001-10: Gemstar launches the Gemstar eBook in Europe, beginning with Germany, but stops selling it two years later.
2001-10: With 30 billion archived web pages, the Internet Archive launches the Wayback Machine to see a given website or web page at various times since 1996.
2001-10: The Pocket PC’s Windows CE (OS) is replaced with Pocket PC 2002 (OS), for users to be able to read copyrighted ebooks with DRMs.
2001-12: The Acrobat Reader is available for the Pocket PC (Microsoft).
2002: 23 million Palm Pilots have been sold worldwide since the Palm Pilot was launched in 1996 as the first PDA.
2002-02: The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) is signed as the founding text of the open access movement, promoting free access to research literature.
2002-02: Benetech creates Bookshare, a digital library for blind and visually impaired users.
2002-03: The Oxford University Press creates Oxford Reference Online (ORO) as a major online encyclopedia intended for the web, with a paid subscription.
2002-04: The Mobipocket Reader offers a version for computers on top of a version for PDAs.
2002-07: The company E Ink shows the prototype of its E Ink screen for e-readers. The first E Ink screen is marketed two years later.
2002-07: The Palm Reader offers a version for computers on top of a version for PDAs.
2002-07: Pierre Schweitzer creates the start-up iCodex to develop and market @folio, his “open” e-reader.
2002-11: The Microsoft Reader has a version for the Tablet PC on top of a version for PDAs.
2002-12: Creative Commons publishes its first licenses, for authors to be able to share their work on the internet, and for creators to be able to copy and remix it.
2003: RLIN, the union catalog of the Research Libraries Group (RLG), is renamed the RLG Union Catalog.
2003: The Cybook, the first European e-reader, is developed and marketed by Bookeen, the successor of Cytale.
2003-02: HandicapZéro launches a major web portal to offer “accessible” information to French-speaking blind and visually impaired users.
2003-03: Paulo Coelho offers free digital versions (PDF) of some of his best-sellers worldwide.
2003-05: The Acrobat Reader (for standard PDFs) and the Adobe eBook Reader (for copyrighted PDFs with DRM) merge into the Adobe Reader.
2003-06: Gemstar stops marketing the Gemstar eBook worldwide, and closes its digital bookstore the following month.
2003-09: The MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) creates its OpenCourseWare (OCW) to offer all its course materials for free on the web.
2003-10: The Public Library of Science (PLOS) launches its first free scientific and medical journals, with all articles under a Creative Commons license.
2003-12: Adobe opens its own digital library, the Digital Media Store.
2003-12: One million works available on the internet use a Creative Commons license.
2004: Le Monde.fr, the website of the French daily Le Monde, launches its own platform of blogs.
2004: Tim O’Reilly, founder of O’Reilly Media, uses the term “web 2.0” for the first time as the title of a conference he is organizing.
2004: The company E Ink markets the first screens using the E Ink technology.
2004-01: The European Commission creates the European Library, that replaces Gabriel as the web portal for European national libraries.
2004-01: Project Gutenberg launches Project Gutenberg Europe as a multilingual project hosted by Projekt Rastko, in Belgrade, Serbia.
2004-02: Facebook is created by Mark Zuckerberg for his fellow students before being used worldwide.
2004-03: The Research Libraries Group (RLG) launches RedLightGreen as the first free online union catalog for libraries.
2004-04: Sony markets its first e-reader, the LIBRIe, in Japan. The LIBRIe is also the first e-reader with an E Ink screen instead of a LCD screen.
2004-05: The number of official languages in the European Union goes from 11 languages (plus Latin) to 20 languages, after several Eastern European countries joined the European Union.
2004-10: Google launches Google Print for publishers and libraries, before stopping it because of copyright issues, and re-launching it as Google Books one year later.
2004-11: Google launches Google Scholar for the academic community.
2004-11: The Adobe LiveCycle Policy Server replaces the Adobe Content Server to create and manage copyrighted PDFs with DRM.
2005-04: Amazon buys Mobipocket (format, software and ebooks) before launching the Kindle two years later.
2005-04: The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) replaces the Open eBook Forum to develop a standard format for ebooks.
2005-09: The website Livre-Rare-Book offers a catalog of two million rare and used books from 500 bookstores.
2005-10: The Internet Archive launches the Open Content Alliance (OCA) to offer a world public digital library, with the help of several institutional partners.
2005-10: O’Reilly Media offers digital versions of its printed books on its website.
2005-11: The digital bookstore Numilog creates the BNH (Bibliothèque Numérique pour le Handicap – Digital Library for Handicapped People) on its website.
2005-12: The OpenCourseWare Consortium (OCW Consortium) is founded by MIT for other universities to offer their course materials, with 100 participating universities one year later.
2005-12: There are one billion internet users (15.7% of the world population).
2006: The Public Library of Science (PLOS) creates PLOS ONE as an open access journal for any scientific or medical article.
2006: There are 90 million smartphones and one billion mobile phones worldwide.
2006-03: The European Commission works on the project of a European digital library. Europeana is launched two years later.
2006-06: Twitter is a micro-blogging tool for 140-character messages.
2006-08: Google creates Google Books to replace Google Print, with ongoing lawsuits from the Authors Guild and the Association of American Publishers (AAP).
2006-08: OCLC’s WorldCat, a subscription-based union catalog for libraries worldwide, creates worldcat.org to offer a free online version of its catalog.
2006-10: Microsoft creates its own digital library, Live Search Books, before ending the project two years later and giving its collection to the Internet Archive.
2006-10: Sony launches the Sony Reader, its second e-reader after the LIBRIe in Japan. Both readers have an E Ink screen.
2006-11: There are 100 million websites worldwide.
2006-11: Users of RedLightGreen, the free union catalog launched in 2004 by the Research Libraries Group (RLG), are now redirected to the free online version of WorldCat.
2006-12: Gallica, the digital library of the National Library of France (Bibliothèque Nationale de France – BNF), offers 90,000 books and 80,000 images.
2006-12: HandicapZéro — a major information portal for French-speaking blind and visually impaired users — has 200,000 visitors per month.
2007-01: The number of official languages in the European Union goes from 20 languages to 23 languages (with Bulgarian, Irish and Romanian). Croatian is added three years later.
2007-02: Creative Commons publishes the versions 3.0 of its licenses, with an international license and compatibility with other similar licenses (copyleft, GPL and others).
2007-02: Tumblr is launched as a microblogging platform to post short texts, images, photos and videos.
2007-03: Larry Sanger creates Citizendium as a free collaborative online encyclopedia whose content is checked by experts.
2007-04: yourDictionary.com offers a directory of 2,500 dictionaries and grammars in 300 languages.
2007-05: The Encyclopedia of Life is a collaborative online encyclopedia to document all known species of animals and plants.
2007-06: Apple launches its own smartphone, the iPhone.
2007-06: The European Commission launches the free public version of IATE (InterActive Terminology for Europe) to replace Eurodicautom (closed in 2003).
2007-09: The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) publishes the first version of the EPUB format, to replace the OeB (Open eBook) format (launched in September 1999).
2007-10: Google launches Google Translate as its free online translation service, after using a translation service from SYSTRAN for two years.
2007-11: Amazon launches the Kindle, its own e-reader.
2007-12: Unicode (created in 1991) supersedes ASCII (created in 1963) as the main encoding system on the internet.
2008-02: ActuaLitté is launched as a French-language online literary magazine by Nicolas Gary and his friends.
2008-07: The PDF format is released as an open standard, and published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) as ISO 32000-1:2008.
2008-09: Plastic Logic opens its first factory in Dresden, Germany, to manufacture flexible plastic displays.
2008-10: Google tries (unsuccessfully) to reach a settlement with the Authors Guild and the Association of American Publishers (AAP) about the copyrighted books in Google Books.
2008-11: The European Commission launches Europeana as the European public digital library.
2009-01: Amazon buys Audible.com and its collection of audiobooks, newspapers and magazines.
2009-01: The digital bookstore Numilog sells 50,000 ebooks in French and English.
2009-02: Amazon launches the Kindle 2 one year and three months after the first Kindle.
2009-02: Google Books creates a dedicated portal of ebooks for smartphones.
2009-05: Amazon launches the Kindle DX with a larger screen.
2009-05: Marc Autret, a developer and graphic designer, creates Indiscripts, which stands for “InDesign Scripting Playground”.
2009-06: The Google Translator Toolkit is a free web service for (human) translators to edit translations generated by Google Translate.
2009-11: Barnes & Noble.com launches its own e-reader, the Nook.
2010-03: Gallica, the digital library of the National Library of France (Bibliothèque Nationale de France – BNF), offers one million documents.
2010-04: The Library of Congress begins archiving public tweets.
2010-04: Apple launches its own tablet, the iPad.
2010-05: The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) releases EPUB2.
2010-06: Facebook celebrates its 500 million users.
2010-12: 400 million works available on the internet use a Creative Commons license.
2011-01: Wikipedia celebrates its tenth anniversary with 17 million articles in 270 languages.
2011-03: There are 2 billion internet users (30.2% of the world population).
2011-03: The website Indigenous Tweets is created by Kevin Scannell to identify tweets in minority languages.
2011-07: Project Gutenberg celebrates its 40th anniversary with a collection of 36,000 ebooks.
2011-09: Michael Hart — inventor of ebooks and founder of Project Gutenberg — dies in Illinois.
2011-03: The website Indigenous Blogs is created by Kevin Scannell to identify blogs in minority languages.
2011-10: The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) releases EPUB3.
2011-12: Twitter teams up with Google for public tweets to be available in Google’s search results.
2013: The Ethnologue, a reference catalog of living languages, publishes its free online version before its paid print version. The catalog will now be updated every year instead of every four years.
2013-04: The Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) is founded as the common digital library for all American libraries, archives and museums.
2013-11: Creative Commons publishes the versions 4.0 of its licenses.
2014: Bookshare offers a catalog of 280,000 ebooks for 300,000 blind and visually impaired users in 50 countries.
2014-12: 882 million works available on the internet use a Creative Commons license.
2015-01: There are 7,102 living languages, according to the Ethnologue.
2015-02: Plastic Logic creates the company FlexEnable to develop the next flexible displays.
2015-03: There are 3 billion internet users (42.3% of the world population).
2015-04: The Online Books Page gives access to two million free books on the internet.
2015-04: The Adobe Reader is renamed Adobe Acrobat Reader, its former name.
2015-05: There are about one billion websites worldwide.
2015-07: Distributed Proofreaders has digitized and proofread 30,000 ebooks for Project Gutenberg.
2015-09: Project Gutenberg releases eBook #50,000.